Phytomedicine , vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 351-364, 2000
Pharmacokinetic and oral bioavailability of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in rats and human
A. Panossian, A. Hovhannisyan, G. Mamikonyan, H. Abrahamian, E. Hambardzumyan, E. Gabrielian, G. Goukasova, G. Wikman, H. Wagner

Validated analytical methods (HPLC, CE and GC-MS) for determining the amount of andrographolide (AND) in the blood plasma of rats and human volunteers following the oral administration of Andrographis paniculata extract (APE) and Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang tablets were developed and used for the pharmacokinetic study. Andrographolide was quickly and almost completely absorbed into the blood following the oral administration of APE at a dose of 20 mg/kg body wt. in rats. Its bio-availability, however, decreased four-fold when a 10-times-higher dose was used. Since a large part (55%) of AND is bound to plasma proteins and only a limited amount can enter the cells, the pharmacokinetics of AND are described well by a one-compartment model. Renal excretion is not the main route for eliminating AND. It is most likely intensely and dose dependency metabolized. Following the oral administration of four Kan Jang tablets (a single therapeutic dose, equal to 20 mg of AND) to humans, maximum plasma levels of approximately 393 ng/ml (approx. 1.12 μM) were reached after 1.5–2 hours, as quantified using a UV diode-array detection method. Half-life and mean residence times were 6.6 and 10.0 hours, respectively. AND pharmacokinetics in humans are explained well by an open two-compartment model. The calculated steady state plasma concentration of AND for multiple doses of Kan Jang (after the normal therapeutic dose regimen, 3 × 4 tablets/day, about 1 mg AND/kg body wt./day) was approximately 660 ng/ml (approx. 1.9 μM), enough to reveal any anti-PAF effect, particularly after drug uptake when the concentration of AND in blood is about 1342 ng/ml (approx. 3.8 μM, while for anti-PAF effect EC50 — 5 μM).

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